In 2015, the two-children policy was introduced nationally in China to take the place of the former one-child policy, which was put in practice nationally in 1979, to increase the population growth rate. The one-child policy means, literally, one family could not have more than one child. This policy was criticized by the international community since it has been introduced, due to human rights violations, sex-selected abortion, abandonment, etc. In this essay, I will talk about the influence of the one-child policy regarding both, its positive and negative consequences. I will focus on the effect on the education system, and regarding the consequences for girls, because one could claim that the one-child policy actually protects girls and can be considered part of the women’s rights struggle in China.